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DKK ClimateGlossary - Terms A to C


Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments

for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol

Website: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/4577.php

To discuss future commitments for industrialized countries under the Kyoto Protocol, the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol established a working group in December 2005 called the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP).

Source: Federal Environment Ministry  http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/klima-energie/klimaschutz/internationale-klimapolitik/glossar/ (German)


Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention

Website: http://unfccc.int/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/lca/items/4381.php

At its thirteenth session, the Conference of the Parties (COP), by its decision 1/CP.13 (the Bali Action Plan), launched a comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision at its fifteenth session. It decided that the process shall be conducted under a subsidiary body under the Convention, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA), that shall complete its work in 2009 and present the outcome of its work to the Conference of the Parties for adoption at its fifteenth session.

At its fifteenth session, the COP, by its decision 1/CP.15, extended the mandate of the AWG-LCA to enable it to continue its work with a view to presenting the outcome of its work to the COP for adoption at its sixteenth session.

The COP, at its sixteenth session, by its decision 1/CP.16 (Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention) extended the  AWG-LCA for one year, to continue its work with a view to carry out the undertakings contained in this decision and present the results to the Conference of the Parties for consideration at its seventeenth session.

Source: Federal Environment Ministry http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/klima-energie/klimaschutz/internationale-klimapolitik/glossar/  (German)



Bali Roadmap


The Bali Roadmap consists of the Bali Action Plan and a number of other decisions.

Documents: Englisch Version

The United Nations Climate Change Conference, hosted by the Government of Indonesia, took place at the Bali International Convention Centre in 2007. It brought together more than 10,000 participants, including representatives of over 180 countries together with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations and the media. The two week period included the sessions of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, its subsidiary bodies as well as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. A ministerial segment in the second week concluded the Conference.

The conference culminated in the adoption of the Bali Road Map, which consists of a number of forward-looking decisions that represent the various tracks that are essential to reaching a secure climate future. The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan, which charts the course for a new negotiating process designed to tackle climate change, with the aim of completing this by 2009. It also includes the AWG-KP negotiations and their 2009 deadline, the launch of the Adaptation Fund, the scope and content of the Article 9 review of the Kyoto Protocol, as well as decisions on technology transfer and on reducing emissions from deforestation.

Source: Federal Environment Ministry http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/klima-energie/klimaschutz/internationale-klimapolitik/glossar/#c14012   (German)



Clean Development Mechanism - Certified Emissions Reduction Credit

Website: UNFCCC - CDM http://cdm.unfccc.int

Under the Clean Development Mechanism, emission-reduction (or emission removal) projects in developing countries can earn certified emission reduction credits (CER), each equivalent to one ton of CO2.  These CERs can be traded and sold, and used by industrialized countries to a meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The mechanism stimulates sustainable development and emission reductions, while giving industrialized countries some flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction limitation targets. The CDM is the main source of income for the UNFCCC Adaptation Fund, which was established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2% levy on CERs issued by the CDM.

Source: UNFCCC  http://unfccc.int

Federal Environment Ministry http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/klima-energie/klimaschutz/internationale-klimapolitik/glossar/#c14012  (German)


Directorate-General Climate Action (CLIM)

Dokument: Notification from the European Commission for two new Directorates-General

In 2010 the European Commission created the new Directorate-General Climate Action (DG CLIM).  Climate change was previously included in the remit of DG Environment of the European Commission. DG CLIM leads international negotiations on climate, helps the EU to deal with the consequences of climate change and to meet its targets for 2020, as well as develops and implements the EU Emissions Trading System.

Source: EU Commission, DG CLIM

CO2 Equivalent

A metric measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential (GWP). Carbon dioxide equivalents are commonly expressed as 'million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCDE)'. The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the tonnes of the gas by the associated GWP. MMTCDE = (million metric tonnes of a gas) * (GWP of the gas). For example, the GWP for methane is 21 and for nitrous oxide 310. This means that emissions of 1million metric tonnes of methane and nitrous oxide respectively is equivalent to emissions of 21 and 310 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide.

Source: IPCC WG1AR5  http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_SummaryVolume_FINAL.pdf  (pdf)


Conference of the Parties

Document: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Internet: www.unfccc.int

According to Article 7 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change the Conference of the Parties, as the supreme body of this Convention, shall keep under regular review the implementation of the Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt, and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention. Ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties are being held every year.

COP 1 - 1995 Berlin, Germany
Milestone: Berliner Mandate (pdf)

COP 2 - 1996 Geneva, Switzerland

COP 3 - 1997 Kyoto, Japan
Milestone: Kyoto-Protocol

COP 4 - 1998 Buenos Aires, Argentina

COP 5 - 1999 Bonn, Germany
Milestone: Bonn Agreement

COP 6 - 2000 Den Haag, Netherlands

COP 7 - 2001 Marrakesch, Marocco

COP 8- 2002 New Delhi, India
Milestone: Declaration of Delhi (pdf)

COP 9 - 2003 Milan, Italy

COP 10 - 2004 Buenos Aires, Argentina

COP 11 - 2005 Montréal, Canada

COP 12 - 2006 Nairobi, Kenia

COP 13 - 2007 Bali, Indonesia
Milestone: Bali Roadmap

COP 14 - 2008 Posen, Poland

COP 15 - 2009 Copenhagen, Denmark
Milestone: Copenhagen Accord

COP 16 - 2010 Cancún, Mexico
Milestone: Cancun Agreement

COP 17 - 2011 Durban, South Afrika

Documentation of all COPs can be acessed at: http://unfccc.int/meetings/archive/items/2749.php

Copenhagen Accord

Documents: Copenhagen Accord, 18.12.2009 (pdf)

The Copenhagen Accord was the main outcome of the UN climate change conference held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. The 2-1/2 page accord was negotiated on the final day of the conference by the leaders of some 28 developed and developing countries and the European Commission. These countries account for over 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The Conference then took note of the Copenhagen accord. The secretariat of the UN climate change convention invited Parties to declare by 31 January whether they wish to be associated with the Copenhagen Accord. The Accord sets the same date for developed countries to submit their emission reduction targets, and for developing countries to submit their emissions mitigation actions.

Source: EU Commission


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